EU and UK negotiators reached an agreement on the draft Withdrawal Agreement, which will allow the European Council (Article 50) to adopt guidelines on the framework for the future relationship between the EU and the UK on 23 March 2018. The agreement covers issues such as money, civil rights, border regulation and dispute settlement. It also includes a transition period and an overview of the future relationship between the UK and the EU. It was published on 14 November 2018 and was the result of the Brexit negotiations. The agreement was approved by the heads of state and government of the remaining 27 EU countries and the British government of Prime Minister Theresa May, but met with resistance in the British Parliament, whose approval was required for ratification. The consent of the European Parliament would also have been required. On the 15th. In January 2019, the House of Commons rejected the Withdrawal Agreement by 432 votes to 202.  The House of Commons again rejected the agreement on March 12, 2019 by 391 votes to 242 and rejected it a third time on March 29, 2019 by 344 votes to 286. On 22 October 2019, the revised withdrawal agreement negotiated by the Boris Johnson government was published in the first stage in Parliament, but Johnson suspended the legislative process when the accelerated approval programme did not find the necessary support and announced his intention to call a general election.  On 23 January 2020, Parliament ratified the agreement by adopting the Withdrawal Agreement.
On 29 January 2020, the European Parliament approved the Withdrawal Agreement. It was then finalised by the Council of the European Union on 30 January 2020. This means that in practice, the UK will remain in the EU until the end of 2020. It will apply EU laws and regulations, follow the Court of Justice of the European Union, but will not participate in the decision-making process. The transition period ends on December 31, 2020. This briefing note details the withdrawal agreement negotiated between the EU and the UK and concluded on 14 November 2018. It was endorsed by member states and the EU government at a special European Council summit on 25 November and the British Prime Minister promoted it in the UK Parliament and across the country. The agreement has been debated in detail several times in Parliament and voted on three times. But the House of Commons did not approve it.
A second extension of Article 50 lasted the withdrawal date until the 31st. October 2019, but once again, the UK faces the possibility of leaving the EU without a deal if that deal or any other deal is not ratified by the UK and the EU. The NI Protocol, known as the “backstop,” is intended to be temporary and valid unless it is replaced by an agreement on the future relationship that the parties will seek to conclude by December 31, 2020. The Protocol foresees that the common travel area and North-South cooperation will continue to a large extent as they do today, as will the internal electricity market (so that some EU legislation on wholesale electricity markets will continue to apply). It was “signed on the assumption that subsequent agreements could be reached to clarify these aspects,” the spokesman added. The Northern Ireland Protocol, known as the “Irish backstop”, was an annex to the November 2018 draft agreement that outlined provisions to prevent a hard border in Ireland following the United Kingdom`s withdrawal from the European Union. The Protocol contains a provision on a safety net to deal with circumstances in which other satisfactory arrangements have yet to enter into force at the end of the transition period. This project has been replaced by a new protocol which will be described below.
The 30-page political declaration outlines a longer-term agreement between the UK and the EU. Negotiations are ongoing and the UK is aiming for an agreement by 15 October 2020. . .
Thursday, October 14th, 2021
2015 © London EMDR, 32, Warren Street, London, W1T 5PG.